Participle and Gerund

🔷 Participle

◻️Participles work as both verbs and adjectives.

Note : A participle is a form of verb working as both an adjective and a verb in
the sentence.

Participles are of three kinds :
1. Present participle
2. Past participle
3. Perfect participle

◼️ Present participle : 
A Present participle expresses an action going on. It is formed by adding - 'ing' to verb in the sentence. When a particilple works as an Adjective, it qualifies the noun.

◼️Note: A Present participle works both as a verb and an adjective.

Examples :
(i) A rolling stone gathers no moss (rolling qualifies stone).
(ii) The hunter looked at the flying bird (flying qualifies bird).
(m) We saw him running. (running indicates that the action of the verb was going on).
(iv) The beauty of the rising sun channs all (rising qualifies sun).
(v) Give me some writing paper (writing qualifies paper).
(vi) I found the boy standing (standing qualifies the boy).

◼️ Past Participle : It is the past participle form of a verb. It works as a verb and an adjective.

(i) A burnt child dreads the fire.
(ii) The Minister came to visit the eroded riverbanks.
(iii) There is a broken chair in the room.
(iv) They will not receive the rejected goods.
(v) Anwar has built a house.

In the above sentences bumt, eroded, broken, rejected qualify the nouns child,
riverbanks, chair, goods
Built indicates what Anwar has done.

◼️ Perfect Participle: It is formed by using having before the past participle.
Perfect participle also works as verb and adjective.

(i) Having reached home, he went straight to his mother.
(ii) Having read the book, he gave it to me.
(iii) Having seen the film, we shed tears. .
(iv) Having been infonned of the incident, he went to the spot.

◼️ Gerund
Gerund does the function of a verb and a noun. It is the present participle
form of verb.

Learning is a continuous process. Learning a language depends on a process based on language skills which are interesting. We follow different ways to
learn. We learn by listening, speaking, reading and writing.  To learn English we have to practice four skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. You should continue to practice these skills because you have no other way to achieve command of English without practising the skills. 

Remember that a child starts to leam its
mother tongue by listening and lipsing and then speaking Native speakers learn easily their language by listening and speaking. If they do not go to school, they do not need to read and write. But still they can learn whereas the foreign leamers have to practise the skills. So you have to practise four skills for learning. Besides practising the skills, developing vocabulary is a must for you.

➤ The underlined words in the passage are gerunds.

🔷 Note: Gerund mainly woks as a noun & Participle works as a verb.

Functions of Gerund :
a) As the subject of a verb: Walking is good for health. Reading books is a good habit.
b) As the object of a verb: Stop writing. He learns drawing.
c) As the object of preposition: He is fond of riding. I am thinking of going there.
d) As a complement to verb: Seeing is believing. My hobby is reading.
e) As a part of compound noun:  We need safe drinking water. The police used laughing gas.

⚫Exercise  (Review Gerund):

Replace infinitives of the following sentences by gerund -
i. To tell a lie is a great  sin.
ii. I like to eat vegetables.
iii. This is a room to live in.
iv. His hobby is to travel.
v. To walk is good for health.
vi. He started to learn English.
vii. To steal is a sin.
viii. It is bad to find fault with others.
ix. It is essential to speak English to have fluency.
x. To plant a sapling is everybody's responsibility.
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