Present Tense

Tense is the form of a verb shows the time of an action present, past and future indicated by the verb. 

In the other words, tense is the form in which or where a verb is used to express when an action is , was or will be completed or performed.

The acton of verb is performed in three times , that is, Tense is of three kinds -
1. Present Tense
2. Past Tense
3. Future Tense

Present Tense 

Each of the three principal tenses has four forms.

Namely -
(a) Present Indefinite Tense 
(b) Present Continuous Tense
(c) Present Perfect Tense 
(d) Present Perfect Continuous Tense.

1. Present Indefinite Tense is used to express:
Structure : subject + verb (s/es) + object 

(i) A universal or general truth : 
The earth moves round the sun.
Honesty is the best policy.

(ii) A habitual or permanent action : 
He reads the Quran everyday. 
My watch keeps right time.

(iii) A near future action : 
He joins his office today. 
He goes to Dhaka tomorrow. 
The school opens next week.
He returns tomorrow.

This usage is common with verbs of motion: Come, go, start, return, begin, close etc.

(iv) A present action: It rains. He walks.

Note : 
Sometimes Present Indefinite tense is used in stead of Present Continuous Tense : Wind blows.

(v) Quotations from authors: 
John Keats says, "A thing of beauty is a
joy for ever".

(vi) Past events in order to make the narrative more lively:
Alexander now attacks the enemy. 
(This is called the Historic or Graphic
Akbar conquers Gujrat.
Alexander invades India.

(vii) Between two future incidents , if one incident is confined to be done before other incident, the first incident is to be described with after, as soon as, when then this incident takes the verb of Present Indefinite Tense.
Example : I shall buy a book when I go to market.

2. Present Continuous Tense expresses:
Structure : subject + am/is/are + ( verb +ing ) + object 

i. An action going on at present: I am writing. He is playing.

ii. An immediate future action: I am returning next week.

This tense is not used with the following verbs called verbs of perception such
as, believe, feel, taste, smell, desire, hate, recognize, hear, hope, know, like,
love, see, understand, want, wish, wonder, belong, consist, contain, matter,
possess, resemble etc.

We do not say : 
I am loving you
He is desiring to go.

We say : 
I love you
He desires to go.

But nowadays We find the use : 
I am feeling unwell.

3. Present Perfect tense is used to express :
Structure : subject + have/has + verb (past participle) + object 

a. An action just finished: I have done my duty.
He has written a letter.

Note: Present Perfect Tense is used with lately , recently . These words also indicate incomplete period of time.

Example: My father has been transferred to New York recently.

b. A past action the result of which is still going on: He has finished his work.

c.  action begim in the past but not yet completed: He has served in the school for ten years (He is still serving).

d. A future perfect’ action when preceded by when, before, after, as soon as etc :
I shall return when I have finished the work.

Note : Present Perfect Tense form of some verbs like go, come, set, rise etc. is sometimes formed with the verb ‘be’; 
He is gone. 
The sun is set.

4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense :

Structure : subject + have/has+ been + verb-ing + (since + point in time)/( for + period of time

It indicates that the action has been
going on for a period and is not finished yet: 
I have been reading in this school for five years. 
It has been raining since morning.
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