Linking Words

Linking Words of time - Still, yet and already
Still tells us that an action is continuing, or hasn't happened yet. It has negative and question forms.

E.g. It s 10  o'clock and John's still in bed.
or She said that she would be here an hour ago and she still hasn't come.
or Are you still living in Botofogo?

‘Yet’ asks if something has happened, or to say that something hasn't happened.
It is mainly used in NEGATIVES & QUESTIONS and comes at the end of a
sentence. ‘Yet’ is usually used with the present perfect tense.

E.g. He hasn't finished the report yet.
Or , Is dinner ready yet?

'Already' is used to say that something happened before expected, it usually
comes in middle position, but can also come in final position. ‘Already’ is not
used in negatives and in British English is only used in questions to show
considerable surprise.

I'll tell her that dinner is ready.
She already knows.
Have you finished already? I thought it would take you longer!

In order to understand this type of linking word, you must be clear about the
concepts of 'a point in time’ and 'a'period of time‘. 

A point in time is the answer to a 'when' question, and a period of time is the answer to a ‘how long’ question.

Example: Points of time = 6pm, Wednesday, she arrived, summer,
five minutes ago.
Periods of time = 3 seconds, 4 days, ages, 100 years, the Christmas holiday, five minutes.

During and While
'During' and 'while' tell us when something happened. The difference between
them is that ‘during' is followed by a noun phrase (no verb), and 'while'
is followed by a clause (subject + verb + object).

When did you go to Barcelona?
I went there during my holiday in Europe.
I went there while I was on holiday in Europe.

'By' means ‘at some time before’ and tells us when something happens. It is
followed by point in time and can be used for both past and future time.
E.g. This report must be finished by 6pm.

‘By the time‘ has the same meaning but is followed by a clause. It is common
with perfect tenses.
E.g. By the time we get there the party will have finished.

For, since and until
These words all tell us how long something happens. 'For' focuses on duration
and can be used in most tenses. It is followed by a period of time.
'Since' is only used with perfect tenses and must be followed by a point in

E.g. They stayed in Barcelona for two weeks.
Or, They've been in Barcelona since last Friday. = They are still in Barcelona now.

'Until' also tells us how long something happens, but the focus is on the end of
the action or situation. It is followed by a point in time.
E.g. They stayed in Barcelona until last Friday. = They left Barcelona last

Not....any more/longer and no longer -
These expressions tell us that a situation has changed. 'not....any more/longer‘ at the end of a sentence and ‘no longer‘ is used in the middle of a sentence.
Example: Mr. Jones doesn't work here any longer. Or, She no longer works here.

As and Like
'As' and ‘like’ can be used in comparisons.


E.g. He worked for the company, as his father had done before him.
Or, She acts like a child sometimes.

‘As’ can also be followed by a preposition.
E.g. In 1998, as in 1997, inflation in Brazil fell steadily.

'(not)' + adjective or adverb shows equality or inequality.
E.g. She isn't as tall as her father was. Or, The traffic can be
as bad in Rio as it is in Sao Paulo.

'As‘ can be used to state the role, job or function of a person or thing.
E.g. We all worked together as a team. Or, She worked as a
manager in the Human Resources Department.
Or, He used his handkerchief as a flag to attract attention.

'As‘ can be used in the same way as 'because'; however, it gives less emphasis
than 'because‘.
E.g. As the weather was so bad, we didn't go to the beach.
Or, I bought her some ?owers as she had been so kind to me.

'As‘ tells us that actions occur at the same time.
E.g. As the door opened, she saw him standing by the wall.

'As‘ is often used in these common expressions:
As hard as, as soon as, as long as, as well as. as far as, as good as.
E.g. He can stay here as far as I'm concerned. You can go as long as you
come home early.
'As‘ is also the preposition used after these verbs:
Regarded as,  see sth. as,  be thought of as,  Be looked on as.
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