Note on Grammatical Structures

A Note on Structures

Words are essential for an effective communication of thoughts and ideas. But words are of little use unless one knows how to put them together. 

The combinations or arrangements of different kinds of words are the most important features of any language. These
combinations include sentence structures and phrase structures. It is vital for the student to have a firm grasp of the structures.

♨️ There are nine basic sentence structures in English.

🔎 They are as follows:

1. Subject + Intransitive Verb
Lambs bleat.

2. Subject + Linking Verb + Adjective-Complement
Monica is pretty.

3. Subject + Linking Verb + Noun-Complement
Hasan is  a student.

4. Subject + Be + Adverbial- Complement
Zohra is in the library.

5. Subject + Transitive Verb + Object
I have written this book.

6. Subject + Transitive Verb + Object + Adjective-Complement
We found the door locked.

7. Subject + Transitive Verb + Object + Noun-Complement
The club elected Nasim secretary.

8. Subject + Transitive Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object
Tareque sent Hena flowers.

9. There + Verb + Subject
There is a basket on the table. 

Mostly single words have been used to illustrate the basic items of the structures. But it is important to know that in place of single words one can use groups of words called phrases. The phrases have their own structures. 

The main kinds of phrases are as follows:

1. The Noun Phrase

2. The Verb Phrase 

3. The Adjective Phrase

4, The Prepositional Phrase

5. The Present Participle Phrase

6. The Past Participle Phrase

7. The Infinitive Phrase

8. The Adverbial Phrase

☑️ The Noun Phrase: 

The noun phrase, which can function as Subject, Object, Indirect Object, Appositive and Complement, consists of a main noun (headword) and modifiers. 

Modifiers, which precede the headword, are called pre-modifiers and those which follow the headword are called post-modifiers. Determiners, Adjectives and
Noun-adjectives are the most commonly used pre-modifiers.

Determiners, which come first in the noun phrase, include the following groups of words:

a. Articles: a/an, the

b. Demonstratives: this, that, these, those

c. Possessives: my his, her, your, our, its, their, Karim’s
(nominal possessive)

d. Numerals: two, three, etc.

e. Quantifiers: all, both, some, any, no, every, each, either, neither, few, a few, little, a litle, many, much, most

Adjectives follow the determiners in a noun phrase : Adjectives can be pre-modified by adverbs. Noun-adjectives, which are nouns functioning as adjectives, come immediately before the headword.

The structure of pre-modification can be set out in columns:

Determiner + Adverb + Adjective(s) + Noun-Adjective + Noun (Headword)

a very interesting  story
a beautiful diamond ring
some nice fountain pens

Post-modifiers, which occur after the headword in a noun phrase, include the following:

🔷 a. Prepositional phrase: A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition and a noun or a noun phrase: 
Examples of prepositional phrases
post-modifying nouns:

The people of Japan are hard-working.
The book on the table has a green cover.

🔷  b. Participle phrases: Participle phrases are of two kinds: present participle phrase and past participle phrase. A present participle
phrase consists of the ing-form of a verb with object/modifiers.

The girl picking flowers in the garden is pretty.
People going abroad must have valid documents.

A past participle phrase consists of an ed-form of a regular verb with modifiers. 

The bridge destroyed by the flood has been rebuilt.
The man injured in an accident yesterday happens to be a friend of mine.

As for irregular verbs, the past participle is formed differently, for which a good dictionary should be consulted.

🔷  c. Infinitive phrases: An infinitive phrase consists of ‘to’ and the base form of a verb with object /modifiers. 

Hasan’s attempt to win the prize failed.
I have an essay fo write.

☑️ 2. The Verb Phrase: The verb phrase consists of two or more verbs of which one is the main verb and the others may be primary auxiliaries and/or modals. The primary auxiliaries include do, be and have. The modals are as follows: can/could, may/might, shall/should, will/would ‘must, need and dare.There are also some modal-like forms which include ought to, have to, be to, be going to, be about to, had better and would rather. 

The verb phrase has four basic types:

Type A: modal+ base form of a verb: We must work hard.

Type B: have + past participle: I have seen the pyramids.

Type C: one form of primary auxiliary be + ing-form of a verb: Monica is working.

Type D: one form of primary auxiliary be + past participle:
The meat is cooked

These four types can inter into various combinations with each other:

AB: modal + have + past participle: He should have worked.

AC: modal + be+ ing-form: 
He may be sleeping.

AD: modal + be+ past participle: 
The meal should be served now.

BC: have+ a form of be+ ing-form: 
He has been working.

ABC: modal +have +a form of be+ ing-form: He may have been working.

BD: have +a form of be +past participle: 
The meat has been cooked .

CD: be+ ing-form+ past participle: 
The meat ts being cooked.

ABD: have + a form of be+ past participle: The meat may have been cooked.

Verb phrases may be optionally modified by prepositional phrases, participle phrases, infinitive phrases and some noun
phrases all of which function as adverbial phrases modifying verb phrases:

Kamal is playing in the field
He gets up at seven o'clock.

Examples of participle phrases modifying verb phrases:
He rushed out shouting for help.
He will go fishing in the lake tomorrow.

Examples of infinitive phrases modifying verb phrases:
He sat down to drink a glass of water.
He stopped fo tie his shoelace.

Noun phrases like this morning, next day, every day can also modify verb phrases:
He is coming this morning.
She walks to school every day.

☑️ 3. The Adjective Phrase: The adjective phrase, which functions as a complement, has an adjective as its head. An adjective may have pre-modification in the form of an adverb e.g. very interesting, highly amusing. It may also have post-modification which includes the following:

a. prepositional phrases: She is fond of sweets.
b. infinitive phrase: I am glad to see you.
c. enough +infinitive phrase: He is old enough to go to .
d. too +adjective + infinitive phrase: The doctor is too busy
to answer the telephone.
e. of-phrase + infinitive: It is very kind of you to invite me.
f. for-phrase + infinitive: It is difficult for us to speak English fluently.

The above analysis shows that prepositional phrases, participle
phrases and infinitive phrases function mainly as modifiers.
However, infinitive phrases can also be used as basic items like Subjects and Objects. 
To walk regularly is good for the health.
To waste money is unwise.

Examples of infinitive phrases as Objects:
Nasima wants to study /nuglish.
Hamid decided to go into business.

☑️ 4. The Adverbial Phrase: The head of an adverbial phrase is an adverb which may be modified by another adverb called

Mina is walking very quickly. 
You have done the job wonderfully well.

The foregoing analysis explains how simple sentences in English work. Simple
sentences are combined to make compound and complex sentences and the student should familiarize himself
with them because he will meet them in his reading. 
Moreover, he needs to use them if he wants to express himself effectively.

Compound sentences consist of independent clauses(simple sentences) joined by conjunctions which include and, but, or, nor, not only ...but also. 

On the other hand, complex sentences
consist of one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.

🔷 There are three kinds of subordinate clauses: 
adjective clauses,
adverbial clauses 
and noun clauses.

☑️ Adjective Clauses: An adjective clause modifies a noun. The words which are used to introduce adjective clauses are called
relative pronouns. They include who, which, that, whom, whose.

Relative pronouns function as Subject, Object, Object of preposition and Possessive. 

Relative pronoun as Subject:
The car which broke down has been fixed.

📝 Relative pronoun as Object:
This is the pen that I lost yestc rday
The man whom | admire mosi is my father.

📝 Relative pronoun as Object of preposition:
The house which we live in is small.
The house we live in is small.

It may be mentioned that relive pronouns functioning as objects may be omitted.

📝 Relative as possessive:
The building whose root collapsed has been rebuilt.

📝 Adverbial Clauses: Adverbial clauses are introduced by subordinating conjunctions which join the adverbial clauses to the main clause. 

🖇 There are several kinds of adverbial clauses:

☑️ Adverbial Clauses of Time: These are introduced by time conjunctions such as when, while oefore, after, as, as soon as,
till/until, etc.

while: He was watching televisicn while his wife was cooking.

when: We were having lunch wien a guest arrived.

before: She had switched off the light before she went to bed.

after: She went to bed afer she had switched off the light.

as: As the teacher came in, the students stood up.

as soon as: J will come home as svon as the meeting is over.

till/until: Wait here til//until | come back.

☑️ Adverbial Clauses of Condition: 
These are commonly introduced by if or unless : 

If it rains today, the game will not take place. 
If I were you, I would not accept the job.
If you had worked hard, you would have passed.
Unless you work hard, you will not pass.

☑️ Adverbial Clauses of Reason: 
These are introduced by because, since, as:
He is absent today because he is ill.
As he was tired, he went to bed early.

☑️ Adverbial Clauses of Concession: 
These are introduced by although or though:
Although he is poor, he is honest.
Though she is pretty, she is foolish.

☑️ Adverbial Clauses of Comparison: These are introduced by than:
He is wiser than I thought.
She is more intelligent than I gave him credit for.

☑️ Noun Clauses: Noun clauses, which are introduced by that, how, why, what, when, where and if function as nouns.

☑️ A noun clause can occur as:

a. Subject: What he says is important.

b. Object: He admitted that he was wrong.

c. Object of preposition: The house will sell for what it is worth.

d. Appositive: The news that he is alive after the crash made his family happy.

e. Complement: This is exactly what he told me.

f. Object-Complement: He told me what his name was.

g. Indirect Object: He gave whatever he did his full attention. 

h. Adjective-complement: I am glad that you have passed the examination.
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