Transformation of Sentences

The conversion or transformation of sentences is an excellent exercise as lt teaches variety of expression in writing English.

The transformation of sentences consists in changing a sentence from one form to another without any change of meaning. 

Interchange of Interrogative and Assertive Sentences 

In some special types of Interrogatives, when the question is affirmative, a negative answer is implied, and when the question is negative, an affirmative answer is implied. 

Hence an Interrogative sentence is often changed into an Assertive sentence and vice versa.

Int.- What is the use of this statue?
Assert.- There is no use of this statue. 

Int.- When can their glory fade? [or] Can their glory ever fade?
Assert.- Their glory can never fade.

Int.- Is he not a great fool?
Assert. He is a great fool

Assert.- No one can do this. 
Int. - Can anyone do this?

Assert.- I can never forget you. 
Int. - Can I ever forget you? 

Assert.- Man cannot die better than facing fearful odds. 
Int. - How can man die better than facing fearful odds?

Assert.- We bleed if you prick us.
Int. - If you prick us, do we not bleed?

Assert.- It does not matter if I fail. 
Int.- What does it matter if I fail?

Assert. - It does not matter much though we happen to be late.
Int. - What though we happen to be late? 

Assert.- Everybody loves his motherland. 
Int.- Who does not love his motherland?

Assert.- He was a villain to do such a deed. 
Int- Was he not a villain to do such a deed?

Assert - The beauties of Nature are beyond description.
Int.- Are not the beauties of Nature beyond description? 

Assert.- There is no hope for me if you do not come. 
Int.- What hope is there for me if you do not come?
or, Is there any hope for me if you do not come? 

Assert.- Everyone would flee from a state of bondage. 
Int.- Who would not flee from a state of bondage?

Transform the following Sentences from Interrogative to Assertive and vice versa:

1. No one can bear an unprovoked insult. 

2. No one ever w brighter day break than thin

3. If you tickle do we not laugh? 

4. Who does not whish to be happy?

5. Shall I forget those happy day? 

6. Is that the way a gentleman should

7. Is this the kind of dress to wear?

8. Can anybody trust such a liar? 

9. He was a fool to act thus.

10. Of what use is such an old thing?

11. Who does not know him? 

12. Who can touch pitch without being defiled?

Interchange of Exclamatory and Assertive Sentences.

In course of change from Exclamatory to Assertive sentences 'very' is usually used before an Adjective and 'great' before a noun. 

Moreover. It can be changed by using the verb 'wish', 'exclaim in wonder' etc.

Excl- What a fool you are!
Assert- You are a great fool. 

Excl- How beautiful is night!
Assert.- Night is very beautiful.

Excl- How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank!
Assert- The moonlight very sweetly sleeps upon this bank! 

Excl- Oh, that I were young again!
Assert.- I wish that I were young again. 

Excl- Had I but a friend to support me!
Assert- I wish I had a friend to support me.

Excl- If I knew this before!
Assert-  I wish I knew this before.

Excl- Good morning, Mr. Das.
Assert. - I wish you good morning, Mr.Das.

Excl- Hurrah my friend is coming.
Assert.- I rejoice that my friend is coming. 

Excl - Alas! the young man passes away.
Assert- It is sad to think that the young man should pass away. 

Excl- What a nice bird it is!
Assert.-- We exclaim in wonder that it is a very nice bird. 

Excl.-- What a dangerous thing a little learning is! 
Assert.- A little learning is a very dangerous thing.

Excl- Alas! our beloved leader is dead. 
Assert- It is very sad that our beloved leader is dead.

Transform the following Exclamatory sentences into Assertive and vice versa. 

1. Ah, what a beautiful sight was there!

2. What a piece of work is man! 

3. How awkwardly he manages the sword!

4. What a delicious flavour these mangoes havet

5. Oh, that I were there at the time! 

6. He seems to be very clever.

7. It is very beautiful to look at

8. You have fallen very low.

Interchange of Affirmative and Negative Sentences

A Negative sentence is often formed by changing an Assertive (Affirmative) sentence into an Interrogative or Vice Versa. 

Moreover a Negative form can be made by using opposite word, such as, 
none but for only
never for ever
good for bad etc., 
or by changing degree of comparison by using a clause - 'It is not that' etc.

Affirm.- He is a great fool.
Neg.- Is he not a great fool?

Affirm. Only a rogue can act thus. 
Neg.- None but a rogue can act thus.

Affirm.- The brave alone deserve the fair. Neg.- None but the brave deserves the fair.

Affirm.- Can I ever forget you? 
Neg- I can never forget you.

Affirm.- He always minds his lesson. 
Neg.- He never neglects his lesson. 

Affirm. -  You are the only person fit for the job. 
Neg.- No other person but you is fit for the job.

Affirm.- I shall always remember you.
Neg.- I shall never forget you.

Neg.- He left no stone unturned. 
Affirm. He turned all the stones.

Affirm- He is going to attend the meeting. Neg. - It is not that he is not going to attend the meeting. 

Affirm- He is the best boy in the Class. 
Neg.- No other boy in the class is so good as he.

Affirm.- I come here for the last time. 
Neg.- Never again shall I come here.

Affirm- A fisherman's life is hard.
Neg.- A fisherman's life is not easy-going.

Affirm.- Everybody will admit that I am right. 
Neg.- Nobody will deny that I am right.

Affirm.- Brutus loved Caesar.
Neg. - Brutus was not without love for Caesar.
Or, It is not that Brutus did not love Caesar.

Affirm.- It always pours when it rains. 
Neg.- It never rains but pours.

Affirm.- As soon as he saw the tiger he fled.
Neg- No sooner had he seen the tiger than he fled.

Note: None is a shortened form of not one. Yet it is commonly used with plural verbs.

None but fools has/have ever believed it.

Transform the following sentences from Affirmative to Negative and Vice Versa:

1. I was doubtful whether it was you.

2. No one but a coward lee from his duty.

3. Learned men are not always Judicious.

4. Great men are of no one nation, nor of one particular class.

5. As soon as he came, he made objections.

6.  He is sometimes foolish.

7. Every man makes mistakes sometimes.

8. I care very little what he says about me.

9. There is nobody but believes in his honesty.

10. There is no smoke without fire.

11. It is not likely that he will ever see his home again.

Interchange of Degrees of Comparison.

As the following examples show, it is possible to change the degree of comparison of an Adjective or Adverb in a sentence without changing the meaning of the sentence. 
(Positive - Comparative - Superlative)

Posit- I am as brave as he. 
Comp.- He is not braver than I (am).

Posit- He is as intimate to me as to you. Comp.- He is not more intimate to you than to me.

Posit.- There is no mystery so great as misery.
Comp.- Misery is greater than any other mystery.
Super.- Misery is the greatest mystery of all.

Super - Everest is the highest peak of the world. 
Posit- No other peak of the world is as high as Everest.
Comp.-- Everest is higher than any other peak of the world.

Super- He is the best boy in the class.
Comp- He is better than any other boy (all other boys) in the class.
Posit- No other boy in the class is as good as he. 

Super- Japan is one of the richest countries of the world.
Comp.- Japan is richer than most other countries of the world. 
Posit- Very few countries of the world are as rich as Japan.

Super - Iron is the most useful of all metals.
Comp.- Iron is more useful than any other metal.
Posit- No other metal is as useful as Iron.

Super- This is one of the easiest subjects. Comp.- This is easier than most other subjects .
Posit- Very few subjects are so easy as this subject.

Change the Degree of Comparison without changing the meaning. 

1. She is as intelligent as her brother. 

2. She is the best girl in her class

3. Gold is one of the most precious metals.

4. The cow is the most useful of all animals

5. Bombay is one of the richest cities as India 

6. Aparna is better than any other girl in the class. 

7. Akbar was one of the greatest emperors of India.

8. The Rajdhani Express runs faster than any other train.

9. Health is more valuable than wealth.

10. Very few countries are so rich as America

Sentences containing the Adverb 'too'. Joining by 'too'

He is so honest that he will not accept a bribe. 
He is too honest to accept a bribe.
= He is very honest. He will not accept a bribe. 

I am so tired that I cannot walk. 
I am too tired to walk. 
= I am very tired. I can not walk. 

The news is so good that it cannot be true. 
The news os too good to be true. 
= The news is too much good. It can not be true. 

She is so proud that she cannot learn. 
She is too proud to learn. 
= She is very proud. She cannot leam.

She is too clever not to see through your tricks. 
= She is so clever that she will see through your tricks.

Rewrite the following sentences to avoid 'too'.

1. He is too proud to beg. 

2. It is never too late to mend. 

3. She was too late to hear the first speech.

4. The boy in too old for a whipping

5. He speaks too fast to be understood

6. The fact is too evident to require a proof 

7. Be not too eager for praise.

8. The sun is too hot for un to go out at present. 

9. Too many cooks spoil the broth.

10. He reached the station too late to catch the train.

Conversion of Simple sentences to Complex sentences 

(a) by expanding a word or a phrase into a noun clause:

Simple- He pleaded for his innocence. Complex- He pleaded that he was innocent.

Simple -I know her name.
Complex- I know what her name is.

Simple- I am sure of her success in the examination 
Complex- I am sure that she will succeed in the examination

Simple- I prayed for his recovery. 
Complex- I prayed that he might recover.

Simple- They admitted their guilt. 
Complex- They admitted that they were guilty.

(b) by expanding a word or a phrase into an adjective clause:

Simple -He is meritorious boy. 
Complex-He is a boy who has his merit.

Simple- I lost this pen yesterday. 
Complex - This is the pen which I lost yesterday.

Simple - I still remember the advice of my departed father. 
Complex- I still remember the advice which was given by my departed father. 

Simple- He is the last man to utter such a word.
Complex- He is the last man who can utter such a word. 

Simple - I want a car to drive.
Complex- I want a car that I can drive.

(c) by expanding a word or a phrase into an adverb clause : 

Simple - Being rich he cannot understand the suffering of the poor.
Complex- As he is rich he cannot understand the suffering of the poor.

Simple-  He is too weak to move out of doors. 
Complex- He is so weak that he cannot move out of doors. 

Simple - He is working day and night to finish the book.
Complex - He is working day and night so that he may finish the book.

Simple- We went to station by a taxi to avoid missing the train. 
Complex- We went to the station by a taxi lest we should miss the train.

Simple- Nobody will be allowed to enter the hall without a ticket. 
Complex- Nobody will be allowed to enter the hall unless he has a ticket.

Simple - In spite of being old he carried a load of to bask.
Complex- Though he was old. he carried a Load of the bask.

Simple- She danced like an expert dancer. Complex- She danced as she were an expert dancer. 

Simple- Your learning Increases in proportion to your reading.
Complex- The more you read, the more you learn.

Transform the following simple sentences into complex sentences 

(1) The news of his success has been published in the newspaper.
(2) In the event of his failure you should try another chance. 
(3) He is not a man to tell a lie. 
(4) I do not know the name of this place. 
(5) I could not attend the class on account of my illness. 
(6) On going there I found him til Is working hard to gain a prize. 
(8) He is too lazy to shine in life.
 (9) A lost moment is lost for ever. 
(10) It being a day of strike the children are playing on the street. 
(11) The success is always in proportion to had we 
(12) He was believed to be very honest 
(13) Do you wish me to go?
(14) They enquire the reason of his failure. 
(15) Uneasy lies the head scaring crown. (16) It was a hard enough life. 
(17) They walked through the new capital. 
(18) They were too near death to see anyting 
(19) A rolina stone gathers no moss. 
(20) They need a friendly lead.

Conversion of a Complex sentence to a Simple sentence. 

(a) Converting a noun clause into a word or a phrase :

Complex- I know Where he was born.
Simple- I know his birth place.

Complex-I do not know how long he will stay here. 
Simple- The duration of his stay here is not known to me. 

Complex- The truth is he was absent.
Simple- To tell truth he was absent.

Complex- I expect that I shall get a prize. Simple- I expect to get a prize.

Complex- It is the scarcity of a thing that makes it treasured. 
Simple- The scarcity of a thing makes it treasured. 

(b) Converting an adjective clause into a word or a phrase : [ing/ed/to etc]

Complex- Only those boys who work hard, will succeed. 
Simple - Only hard working boys will succeed. 

Complex - They cannot forget the losses that they have suffered
Simple - They cannot forget the lossed suffered by them. 

Complex- People who live in glass houses ought not to throw stones.
Simple- People living in glass houses ought not to throw stones.

Complex- The speaker who was a man of eloquence, spoke in favour of the motion. Simple- The speake, a man of eloquence, spoke in favour the motion.

Complex- Give me some water that I may drink.
Simple- Give me some water to drink.

Complex- l always wonder when I look at the stars that shine in the sky. 
Simple- I always wonder to look at the shining stars in the In the sky.

(c) Converting an adverb clause into a phrase or a word:

Complex- The world must be made safe that the children may 
Simple- The world must be made safe for the children to prosper.

Complex- Because he was ill, he could not attend the function.
Simple- He could not attend the function an account of his illness.

Complex- Though he got the news he was not happy.
Simple - In spite of getting the news he was not happy ty 

Complex- Spend your money carefully lest you should fall into poverty.
Simple- Spend your money carefully to avoid falling into poverty.

Complex- They cried as loudly as they could.
Simple- They cried at the top of their voice.

Conversion of Simple sentences to Compound sentences

(a) by using Cumulative Conjunctions (and, both, and, as well as, not only — but also, etc.): 

Simple- Going to the garden Tukai saw a red rose.
Compound - Tukai went to the garden and saw a red rose.

Simple- Besides giving us advice he helped us with money. 
Compound- He gave us not only advice but also money.

Simple- To add to his misfortune his father died. 
Compound - His father died and this added to his misfortune.

Simple- Ram was present. Shyam was present.
Compound- Ram as well as Shyam was present. 

Simple- Rinku likes tea. Tinku likes tea. Compound- Both Rinku and Tinku like tea.

Simple- He kept his promise. 
Compound - He not only made a promise but (but also) kept.

(b) by using Adversative Conjunction (but, still, yet, nevertheless, however, only etc.) : 

Simple- In spite of being old was young at heart. 
Compound- He was old but he was young at heart. 

Simple -Notwithstanding her pitfalls I love her.
Compound-- She has her pitfalls, yet I love her.

Simple- He had all the qualifications for the post except honesty.
Compound- He had all the qualifications for the post but he was not honest.

Simple- In spite of my annoyance I kept quiet.
Compound- I was annoyed, still I kept quiet. 

Simple- I would come to be engaged. Compound- I would come: only that I am engaged.

Simple- He is weak. He works hard.
Compound- He is weak; nevertheless he works hard.

(c) by using Alternative Conjunctions (either.......or neither......nor, or, otherwise, else etc.)

Simple- You must avoid fat to lose weight.
Compound- You must avoid fat or you will not lose weight.

Simple- He would have been insulted but for your timely intervention. 
Compound- You had intervened timely, otherwise he would have been insulted.

Simple-Take another chance to avoid the peril of your life.
Compound- Take another chance, else your life will be at peril. 

Simple- He is mad. Or. he feigns madness. Compound- Either he is mad or he reigns madness.

Simple- Don't be a borrower. Don't be a lender.
Compound- Neither a borrower, nor a lender be.

(d) by using Illative Conjunctions (therefore, then, so, and so, for etc.) 

Simple- His work being unsatisfactory he was dismissed.
Compound- His work was unsatisfactory: therefore he was dismissed.

Simple- He gained prominence by virtue of his sincerity. 
Compound- He was sincere, and so he gained prominence. 

Simple- Walking all day long he came back home. 
Compound- He came back home: for he had walked all day long.

Convert the following simple sentences into compound ones : 

1. Going home he was very happy to see his mother.

2. The rain having stopped they started for their destination.

3. Being happy he agreed to a handsome donation.

4. In spite of being old he carried a heavy load.

5. Picking up a ruler he hit the boy. 

6. In spite of bad weather they scaled them mountain. 

7. Besides being honest he is sincere.

8. Notwithstanding several efforts he failed.

9. He must read hard to pass the examination.

10. He could not attend the meeting for his illness. 

Conversion of Compound sentences to Simple Sentences

(a) by using a participle : [ing/ed/-en, words]

Compound -They went home and found their brother. 
Simple- Going home they found their brother. 

Compourid- Rita was very sorry and left for home carly.
Simple- Being very sorry Rita left for home early.

Compound- Many areas of India produce tea and Darjeeling is one of them.
Simple- Darjeeling is one of the many tea-producing areas of India.

Compound- Mother asked Runa to iron the clothes and those were dried.
Simple- Mother asked Runa to iron the dried clothes.

Compound–The oranges are being sorted. The rotten ones are thrown away
Simple- During sorting, the rotten oranges are thrown away. 

(b) by using a Prepositional Phrase:

Compound- He was terribly unhappy but he did not blame the girl. 
Simple- In spite of being terribly unhappy he did not blame the girl.

Compound- Dr. Roy was not only a physician but also a statesman. 
Simple- Besides being a physician Dr. Roy was a statesman. 

Compound- He indulges in tall talkes but he is a scoundrel.
Simple- Notwithstanding his tall talks he is a scoundrel.

(c) by using an Infinitive :

Compound- You must give up smoking or you will suffer.
Simple- You must give up smoking to avoid suffering. 

Compound- His enterprises failed and this added to his worries.
Simple- HIs enterprises failed to add to his worries.

Convert the following compound sentences into simple ones

(1) You must be personal not abstarct. (contracted compound) 

(2) Its familiarity is not its weakness but its supreme virtue.

(3) He not only made a promise but kept it.

(4) The Spring came all over but in the plants garden. It was still Winter 

(5) The train began to move and the soldier sank back on his seat. 

(6) He set his burden down with great gentleness and he sank upon the ground.

(7) I shall be back at the camp to night and I'll write to everyone tomorrow. 

(8) Debu did not find the room suitable and moved to the first floor.

(9) We must not be late, else we will miss the bus.

(10) The judge found him guilty and sentenced him to three year's imprisonment.

Transformation of Sentences

Conversion of Complex sentences to Compound sentences 

(1) Complex- Though he is poor. he is honest.
Compound- He is poor but he is honest. 

(2) Complex- If you do it. you will be punished
Compound- Do it and you will be punished.

 (3) Complex- If you do not do it you will be punished. 
Compound- Do it or you will be punished.

(4) Complex- I am sure that you are wrong. Compound- You are wrong and of this I am sure.

(5) Complex -- As he was ill. he could not go. 
Compound- He was ill and therefore he could not go. 

(6) Complex- Unless you do it. I shall fine you.
Compound-- Do it or I shall fine you.

(7) Complex- If you do not work hard. you will fail. 
Compound-- Work hard or you will fail.

Conversion of Compound sentences to Complex sentences

(1) Compound- Work out the sum or you will be punished.
Complex-- If you do not work out the sum, you will be punished. 

(2) Compound- One word more and I will turn you out. 
Complex- If you utter one word more. I will turn you out

(3) Compund- I was angry but I did not punish him.
Complex- Though I was angry, I did not punish him. 

(4) Compound- He gives a command and it is immediately carried out. 
Complex- As soon as he gives a command, It is carried out.

Change the following Compound sentences into Complex and Vice Versa; 

(1) Though he is rich, he is miserly 

(2) He made several attempts. yet he failed.

(3) He is outwardly strict but lenient at heart. 

(4) He has missed the opportunity he was given.

(5) United we stand and divided we fall. 

(6) Spare the rod and spoil the child. 

(7) Do or die. /Do and die.

(8) Read and you will learn.

(19) A few more attempts and we succeed.

(10) He is so weak that he cannot sit in bed.
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