Gerund, Participle, Infinitive

Gerund, Participle, Infinitive

Participle is a non-finite verb. It is used as an adjective. There are three types of participle.


After the completion of this article/post, you would be able to -

  • explain the uses and functions of non-finite verbs.

  • use non-finite verbs for communication.


Lesson 1: Gerund

Lesson 2: Participle

Lesson 3: Infinitive

Answer Key

Lesson 1 : Gerund

Gerund, Participle, Infinitive


Gerund is a non-finite verb. It looks like a verb but acts like a noun. When “verb+ing” works as a “noun and verb”, it is called Gerund.


1. Subject of the verb:

Swimming is a good exercise. Giving is better than receiving. Seeing is believing.

Rising early is a good habit.

The bold subjects in the above sentences are gerund.

2. Object of a transitive verb: Stop writing.

I like reading poetry. Working is praying. My hobby is reading.

I could not help laughing

Don’t give up trying.

The bold objects (predicates) in the above sentences are gerunds.

3. Object of a preposition: I am fond of catching fish.

I am tired of writing.

They are punished for telling a lie.

In the above sentences, after preposition ‘of’ and ‘for’, gerund is used.

4. By + Gerund:

By eating a balanced diet, you can live well.

By drinking milk, you can get vitamins.

By being curious, he can learn many things.

  1. Without + Gerund:

Without working hard, you cannot success.

6. As Verbal Noun (The + Gerund + of): The reading of history is interesting.

The making of dolls/the taking of exercise...

  1. Gerund after particular Finite Verbs:

Mind, drop, practice, finish, delay, forbid, endure, excuse, consider, stop, fancy, suggest, present, prefer, deny, enjoy, miss, forgive, avoid, pardon.

After these finite (principal) verbs --- if another verb (action word) sits, it takes the structure of gerund (verb+ing).


  1. We enjoyed playing football.

  1. We stopped working.

  1. I suggest doing it.

  1. She forbade doing this.

  1. I have finished reading.

Gerund, Participle, Infinitive


Fill in the gaps with gerund:

  1. He advised ________ (do) it.

  1. I don’t mind _______ (chat) with her.

  1. I can’t help ________ (laugh).

  1. I am desirous of _____ (go) abroad.

  1. Without ______ (run) faster, you can’t catch the train.

Answer Key:

  1. doing

  1. chatting

  1. laughing

  1. going

  1. running

Lesson 2 : Participle


Participle is a non-finite verb. It is used as an adjective. There are three types of participle:

  1. Present Participle: When ‘verb+ing’ works as an ‘adjective and verb’, it is called Present Participle.

Example: Standing at the door, he knocks.

  1. Past Participle: When ‘v3’ works as ‘non-finite verb’, it is called past participle.

Example: The burnt house is not ours.

  1. Perfect Participle: When ‘having’ is used as ‘adjective and verb’ is called perfect participle.

Example: Having done the work, I slept.


1. It takes an object like a verb: Hearing a noise, he woke up. I saw a boy mending his shoes.

The participle took objects (‘a noise’, ‘his shoes’) like a verb.

2. It is modified by an adverb:

Loudly knocking at the gate, he went off. The book is very interesting.

‘Loudly’ and ‘very’ are adverbs modifying the participle.

3. It modifies a noun/pronoun:

A lying person should be punished. A sleeping fox cannot catch a hen. A rolling stone gathers no moss.

The glass is broken. This story is exciting. The girl is good-looking.

Here, the participles are modifying the nouns (subjects) like adjectives.

4. It can be compared like an adjective:

She is more charming than her sister.

This is the most amusing story I have ever heard. Here the participles are compared like adjectives.

  1. Absolute Nominative (it means --- not having any relation with Finite Verb): The sky being clear, the plane took off.

I know nothing regarding the matter.

6. Noun phrase + Present Participle =Adjective:

I met a girl carrying a basket of flowers.

I found her crying.

I saw him going up the hill.

Here the italic words are used as adjectives.

Gerund, Participle, Infinitive


Fill in the gaps with participle (present/past/perfect participle):

  1. I know the boys _____ (make) a noise there.

  1. She kept me _____ (wait).

  1. I saw ship _____ (come) towards us.

  1. The car, ____ (break) since months, will be repaired soon.

  1. The sun ____ (verb to have) set, we came back.

Answer Key:

  1. Making

  1. waiting

  1. coming

  1. broken

  1. having

Lesson 3 : Infinitive

Structure of Infinitive: to + base form of verb (v1)

After the following verbs infinitives take place:

Decide, desire, expect, promise, wish, want, offer, hope, refuse, and swear.


  1. She promised to speak the truth.

  1. I desire to go abroad.

  1. We decided to go there.

  1. She refused to help me.

After the following words ‘to’ remains invisible (hidden):

had better, had sooner, than, but, except


  1. You have nothing to do but weep.

  1. He is better able to sing than recite.

After the following verbs, ‘bare infinitive’ (zero/invisible infinitive) takes place:

Make, know, feel, hear, dare, bid, need, behold, watch, notice, see.


  1. Let him stay.

  1. I watched them play.

  1. Did you hear me call you?


Fill in the gaps with infinitives:

  1. Kamal agreed ____ (come).

  1. I hope _____ (see) you soon.

  1. We plan ____ (finish) this shortly.

  1. He offered ____ (sell) the house.

  1. I want ____ (drink).

Answer Key:

  1. to come

  1. to see

  1. to finish

  1. to sell

  1. to drink
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